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Massacres and Morality

By Alex J. Bellamy
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Isbn : 0191624535
  • Pages :
  • Category : Political Science
  • Reads : 518
  • File Pdf: massacres-and-morality.pdf

Book Summary:

Most cultural and legal codes agree that the intentional killing of civilians, whether in peacetime or war, is prohibited. This is the norm of civilian immunity, widely considered to be a fundamental moral and legal principle. Yet despite this fact, the deliberate killing of large numbers of civilians remains a persistent feature of global political life. What is more, the perpetrators have often avoided criticism and punishment. Examining dozens of episodes of mass killing perpetrated by states since the French Revolution late eighteenth century, this book attempts to explain this paradox. It studies the role that civilian immunity has played in shaping the behaviour of perpetrators and how international society has responded to mass killing. The book argues that although the world has made impressive progress in legislating against the intentional killing of civilians and in constructing institutions to give meaning to that prohibition, the norm's history in practice suggests that the ascendancy of civilian immunity is both more recent and more fragile than might otherwise be thought. In practice, decisions to violate a norm are shaped by factors relating to the norm and the situation at hand, so too is the manner in which international society and individual states respond to norm violations. Responses to norm violations are not simply matters of normative obligation or calculations of self-interest but are instead guided by a combination of these logics as well as perceptions about the situation at hand, existing relations with the actors involved, and power relations between actors holding different accounts of the situation. Thus, whilst civilian immunity has for the time being prevailed over 'anti-civilian ideologies' which seek to justify mass killing, it remains challenged by these ideologies and its implementation shaped by individual circumstances. As a result, whilst it has become much more difficult for states to get away with mass murder, it is still not entirely impossible for them to do so.

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Book Summary:

For as long as there has been war, there have been demands for its elimination. The quest for world peace has excited and eluded political leaders, philosophers, religious elders, activists, and artists for millennia. With war on the rise once again, we rarely reflect on what world peace might look like; much less on how it might be achieved. World Peace aims to change all that and show that world peace is possible. Because the motives, rationales, and impulses that give rise to war - the quest for survival, enrichment, solidarity, and glory - are now better satisfied through peaceful means, war is an increasingly anachronistic practice, more likely to impoverish and harm us humans than satisfy and protect us. This book shows that we already have many of the institutions and practices needed to make peace possible and sets out an agenda for building world peace. In the immediate term, it shows how steps to strengthen compliance with international law, improve collective action such as international peacekeeping and peacebuilding, better regulate the flow of arms, and hold individuals legally accountable for acts of aggression or atrocity crimes can make our world more peaceful. It also shows how in the long term, building strong and legitimate states that protect the rights and secure the livelihoods of their people, gender equal societies, and protecting the right of individuals to opt-out of wars has the potential to establish and sustain world peace. But it will only happen, if individuals organize to make it happen.

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  • File Pdf: the-price-of-morality.pdf

Book Summary:

Originally published in 1961, this book defines the specific traits and describes the concrete qualities of moral action. It denotes the boundaries and discusses the conflicts which arise between the aims of moral goodness and those of pure religiosity, personal and historic grandeur and creative excellence. The theories of theologians like Barth and Brunner among others, and the maximalist theories of Nietzsche and his disciples and certain existentialists are contrasted with Kant’s essay on pure ethics.

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  • Publisher : Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press
  • Isbn : 0889205264
  • Pages : 354
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 439
  • File Pdf: killing-women.pdf

Book Summary:

The essays in Killing Women: The Visual Culture of Gender and Violence find important connections in the ways that women are portrayed in relation to violence, whether they are murder victims or killers. The book’s extensive cultural contexts acknowledge and engage with contemporary theories and practices of identity politics and debates about the ethics and politics of representation itself. Does representation produce or reproduce the conditions of violence? Is representation itself a form of violence? This book adds significant new dimensions to the characterization of gender and violence by discussing nationalism and war, feminist media, and the depiction of violence throughout society.

Khooni Vaisakhi

By Navdeep Suri
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Harper Collins
  • Isbn : 9353029392
  • Pages : 144
  • Category : Poetry
  • Reads : 941
  • File Pdf: khooni-vaisakhi.pdf

Book Summary:

Jallianwala Bagh. 13 April 1919. Twenty-two-year-old Nanak Singh joins the mass of peaceful protestors agitating against the Rowlatt Act. What then turns out to be one of the worst atrocities perpetrated by the British Raj, and a turning point in India's independence movement, also becomes a life-changing experience for Nanak Singh, who survives the massacre, unconscious and unnoticed among the hundreds of corpses. After going through the traumatic experience, Nanak Singh proceeds to write Khooni Vaisakhi, a long poem in Punjabi. The poem was a scathing critique of the British Raj and was banned soon after its publication in May 1920. After sixty long years, it was rediscovered and has been translated into English for the first time by the author's grandson, Navdeep Suri. Featuring the poem in translation and in original, this bilingual book is accompanied by essays from Navdeep Suri, Punjabi literature scholar H.S. Bhatia and BBC correspondent Justin Rowlatt. Khooni Vaisakhi is not only a poignant piece of protest literature but also a historical artefact and a resurrected witness to how Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims came together to stand up to colonization and oppression in one of India's darkest moments.

Between Enterprise and Ethics

By John Hendry
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Isbn : 0191533114
  • Pages : 310
  • Category : Business & Economics
  • Reads : 640
  • File Pdf: between-enterprise-and-ethics.pdf

Book Summary:

We live in a 'bimoral' society, in which people govern their lives by two contrasting sets of principles. On the one hand there are the principles associated with traditional morality. Although these allow a modicum of self-interest, their emphasis is on our duties and obligations to others: to treat people honestly and with respect, to treat them fairly and without prejudice, to help and care for them when needed, and ultimately, to put their needs above our own. On the other hand there are the principles associated with the entrepreneurial self-interest. These also impose obligations, but of a much more limited kind. Their emphasis is competitive rather than cooperative: to advance our own interests rather than to meet the needs of others. Both sets of principles have always been present in society but in recent years traditional moral authorities have lost much of their force and the morality of self-interest has acquired a much greater social legitimacy, over a much wider field of behaviour, than ever before. The result of this is that in many situations it is no longer at all apparent which set of principles should take precedence. In this book John Hendry traces the cultural and historical origins of the 'bimoral' society and explores the challenges it poses for the world of business and management. The developments that have led to the 'bimoral' society have also led to new, more flexible forms of organizing, which have released people's entrepreneurial energies and significantly enhanced the creative capacities of business. Working within these organizations, however, is fraught with moral tensions as obligations and self-interest conflict and managers are pulled in all sorts of different directions. Managing them successfully poses major new challenges of leadership, and 'moral' management, as the technical problem-solving that previously characterised managerial work is increasingly accomplished by technology and market mechanisms. The key role of management becomes the political and moral one of determining purposes and priorities, reconciling divergent interests, and nurturing trust in interpersonal relationships. Exploring these tensions and challenges, Hendry identifies new issues for contemporary management and puts recognized issues into context. He also explores the challenges posed for a post-traditional society as it seeks to regulate and govern an increasingly powerful and global business sector.

Classical Morality in International Peremptory Criminal Law

By Farhad Malekian
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
  • Isbn : 1527518264
  • Pages : 350
  • Category : Law
  • Reads : 127
  • File Pdf: classical-morality-in-international-peremptory-criminal-law.pdf

Book Summary:

This book begins with the belief that, if a moral principle cannot be identified in the language of the law, if law is not underpinned by a moral understanding of the norm, if the moral accusation is not attached to the violations of certain indispensable norms of the law, then we are violating the peremptory character of the universality of the moral law. The book vicariously objects to any dispute for the advantage of the impunity of those who have cruelly contravened the corpus juris of international peremptory criminal law. What justifies the law in recognizing certain principles as peremptory derives from the highest genetic merit for the international human community as a whole. Here, the term ‘peremptory’, for classical morality, is seen to encompass love for the spirit of truth, for the strength of equality of arms and for the reaffirmation of the value of the essence of man where its infringements violate the indispensable universal rights of nature. This is regardless of whether its perpetrators are Western or non-Western.

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee

By Dee Brown
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Open Road Media
  • Isbn : 1453274146
  • Pages : 494
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 293
  • File Pdf: bury-my-heart-at-wounded-knee.pdf

Book Summary:

The “fascinating” #1 New York Times bestseller that awakened the world to the destruction of American Indians in the nineteenth-century West (The Wall Street Journal). First published in 1970, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee generated shockwaves with its frank and heartbreaking depiction of the systematic annihilation of American Indian tribes across the western frontier. In this nonfiction account, Dee Brown focuses on the betrayals, battles, and massacres suffered by American Indians between 1860 and 1890. He tells of the many tribes and their renowned chiefs—from Geronimo to Red Cloud, Sitting Bull to Crazy Horse—who struggled to combat the destruction of their people and culture. Forcefully written and meticulously researched, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee inspired a generation to take a second look at how the West was won. This ebook features an illustrated biography of Dee Brown including rare photos from the author’s personal collection.

The Genocide Debate

By D. Beachler
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Isbn : 0230337635
  • Pages : 202
  • Category : Political Science
  • Reads : 336
  • File Pdf: the-genocide-debate.pdf

Book Summary:

Neither a case study of a particular genocide nor a work of comparative genocide, this book explores the political constraints and imperatives that motivate debates about genocide in the academic world and, to a lesser extent, in the political arena. The book is an analysis of the ways that political interests shape discourse about genocide.

Ethics after Wittgenstein

By Richard Amesbury,Hartmut von Sass
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Isbn : 1350087157
  • Pages : 264
  • Category : Philosophy
  • Reads : 301
  • File Pdf: ethics-after-wittgenstein.pdf

Book Summary:

What does it mean for ethics to say, as Wittgenstein did, that philosophy “leaves everything as it is”? Though clearly absorbed with ethical questions throughout his life and work, Wittgenstein's remarks about the subject do not easily lend themselves to summation or theorizing. Although many moral philosophers cite the influence or inspiration of Wittgenstein, there is little agreement about precisely what it means to do ethics in the light of Wittgenstein. Ethics after Wittgenstein brings together an international cohort of leading scholars in the field to address this problem. The chapters advance a conception of philosophical ethics characterized by an attention to detail, meaning and importance which itself makes ethical demands on its practitioners. Working in conversation with literature and film, engaging deeply with anthropology and critical theory, and addressing contemporary problems from racialized sexual violence against women to the Islamic State, these contributors reclaim Wittgenstein's legacy as an indispensable resource for contemporary ethics.